When starting AutoResp™ and this error message appear, AutoResp™ was not installed with administrator rights. During the AutoResp™ installation process a file must be copied into a Windows system folder. This requires an administrator login. Here is the instruction how to install the necessary file to get rid of the error message:
Locate the folder folder: C:\ProgramData\Measurement Computing\DAQ\ . The folder Program Data is a system hidden folder. So you might have to change settings for the folder in order see hidden folders and system files. Hidden folders are shown as “transparent” in Windows’ file explorer.
If the folder doesnt exist, please create it.
Now move the file into this folder.
After you moved the file, change folder settings again to hide hidden and system files.
Start Autoresp™. The error message should be gone by now.
For flushing and recirculating the water in the chamber pumps are needed. We suggest pumps with a flow rate per minute five times the chamber volume (L), e.g. if chamber volume is 1 L, we recommend a 5 L/min pump.
It is important that the volume of the respirometer chamber fits the experimental animal.
If the volume is too large the resulting oxygen depletion curve will be too flat for reliable estimates of the slope that is used in the calculation of the oxygen consumption rate (MO2). A too large chamber will allow space for unwanted activity when trying to measure standard metabolic rate of an in-active (or static) animal. On the other hand, a large fish in a small chamber means that oxygen will decline rapidly to hypoxic levels which might affect the metabolism of oxyregulatory species.
As a rule of thumb, we recommend a 1:10 ratio between the wet weight or volume of the fish and the volume of a static respirometer, e.g. a 500 ml respirometer volume for a 50 g fish, or a 10 liters respirometer volume for a 1 kg fish.
NB: temperature affect metabolic rate in ectotherm animals like fish, e.g. high experimental temperatures favor the use of larger chambers and visa versa.
Active fish swimming in a tunnel respirometer have high mass-specific oxygen consumption rates (MO2), allowing reliable oxygen consumption estimates in relative higher respirometer volume than for static respirometry. Tunnel respirometers are difficult to build with a fish volume to respirometer volume of less than 1:100. We recommend a maximum ratio between the wet weigth (or volume) of the fish and the volume of the swim respirometer of 1: 200, e.g. a 90 liter swim respirometer fits fish down to app. ½ kg. If the volume is too large the resulting oxygen curve will be too flat for reliable estimates of the slope that is used in the calculation of oxygen consumption rate (MO2).
Another restraint is the dimensions of the test section, which should allow the experimental fish to perform unrestricted swimming. This will largely depend on the species and mode of swimming.
Please find our recommendations for fish shaped like salmonids under swim tunnel specifications.
Some materials, like Plexiglass/Perspex can act as oxygen stores and sinks, forming pools of oxygen which can be released or stored in a reversible way - see Stevens, J. (1992) J. Appl. Physiol. 72, 801-804.
This can have an important effect when chambers are down-scaled for micro respirometric measurements of very low oxygen fluxes.
Thus, for oxygen measurements in small volumes less than a few milliLitres (ml), we recommend chambers of glas and inert components with non or low oxygen storage capacity!
For respirometers with larger volumes (>½ litre), the use of acrylic materials have no significant effects on measurements.
LoligoSystems offers the three main types of oxygen sensors differing in measuring principle, response time, sensor size, maintenance requirement and pricing.
A) Optical oxygen sensors
For many invasive techniques, measurements in tiny volumes (e.g. micro respirometry) or applications which require high temporal and spatial resolution, fibre-optic oxygen sensors are the only solution.
Even for general purposes we recommend optical oxygen sensors featuring low maintenance requirements, high stability and accuracy, no electrical interference, no ground loop problems, and zero O2 consumption by the sensor.
The main disadvantages is price, single-channel meters start at about 5215 EUR. A high temperature sensitivity of this technology and a fragile tip on the <50-140 nm micro sensors might also be a problem in some applications. The macro sensors, on the other hand, are very tough.
B) Galvanic cell oxygen electrodes.
Galvanic type oxygen probes are inexpensive and rugged sensors producing a milliVolt signal for easy instrumentation without supplying power.
We recommend galvanic probes for applications like respirometry and field measurements, and as a low-budget alternative to optical oxygen equipment, e.g. for multi-channel systems. They can be used with relatively long cables (+ 25 meters). We recommend using a galvanic isolation preamplifier between the probe and any data acquisition system to minimize possible ground loop problems.
The main disadvantage of galvanic probes is a relative long response time and oxygen self-consumption making them unsuitable for measurements in small volumes and in un-mixed samples.
C) Polarographic oxygen electrodes (or Clark type electrodes). Low oxygen self-consumption and a small size make these sensors suitable for physiological setups like blood gas analysis and low volume respirometry.
However, Clark type electrodes require much maintenance, often membranes and electrolyte fluid should be changed on a daily basis, and polarographic amplifiers for these sensors are quite costly.
Thus, we recommend the E101 as a replacement oxygen electrode for customers with their own polarograhic oxygen meter, e.g. PHM meter from Radiometer Copenhagen, OM200 from Cameron Instr. Co. etc.